The compaction factor for the design mix is taken as 0. The maximum size of aggregate is 20 mm angular. Type of exposure moderate and degree of quality control as very good.

### Requirements of Concrete Mix Design

This is lower than the maximum value of 0. Tallest building in Mumbai. Modern day bridges Longest Bridge in China, 22 miles. Please provide your details we will contact you as soon as possible. Company Invalid Input. Designation Please let us know your Designation. Remarks Please brief your query. Industry 4. Durability of Concrete made with Marble Dust as partial replacement of Cement subjected to Sulphate attack. The influence of these key parameters on segregation, compressive strength, filling and passing abilities was evaluated.

Based upon the information obtained from this investigation, medium strength SCC was developed to reduce the costs of SCC which promotes its use in construction industry. The statistical models used in previous researches simplify the test protocol by reducing the number of trial batches to establish proper proportioned mixtures.

Statistical models make use of simulations of variables to ensure successful filling ability, passing ability, resistance to segregation and medium compressive strength. Ozbay et al.

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They used orthogonal arrays to assess large sets of variables with less experiments. Bouziani 23 evaluated the effect of different types of sand on the properties of SCC with a statistical approach in terms of passing ability, stability and flowability. The mechanical strength was also determined.

## Illustration of Mix Design of Concrete by ISI Method

Binary and ternary binder systems were used to evaluate fresh state properties and compressive strength of SCC including the effect of river sand RS , crushed sand CS and dune sand DS. The number of arrangements C is defined as follows. The design was carried out with three factors and five levels where q and m are the number of factors and levels, respectively. The other SCC components were kept constant such as contents of coarse aggregate, cement, mineral additives, water and superplasticizer.

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A mathematical model was established using the approach which described the outcome of RS, CS, and DS and their blends for a given property. A second degree model is expressed in Equation 5 with three dependent variables and five levels. The b i of the model's coefficients represent input of the connected variables on the response Y.

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Nepomuceno et al. The mix design parameters were evaluated to achieve the required compressive strength and adequate fresh properties of concrete, mixes of two cements and four additional materials.

The authors suggested an experimental and iterative procedure to determine the flow properties. Correlations were determined between fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mix design parameters. The volumes of fine aggregates Vs and coarse aggregates Vg were obtained on the basis of volume of coarse aggregates excluding water content.

Linear correlations were determined between mixture parameters to the total volume of paste in concrete. Li et al. In their approach, the dry mortar surplus coefficient and volume ratio of paste to aggregate had to be calculated. The volume ratio between paste and aggregate was The water demand formula is expressed by Equation 6 : 6 where, V e is the paste volume and V a is air volume expressed in m 3 ; x is the volume ratio of refined admixture fly ash to cementitious materials.

The mix design of SCC was based on a monogram approach for normal vibrated concrete developed by Monteiro et al. This method was based on three laws Abram's law 89 ; Lyse's law 90 and Molinari's law With varying water to cement and water to powder ratios, different mixtures were prepared and three types of marble powder were tested namely cherry, gold and white. A typical mix design monogram is depicted in Figure 4 for a constant water to cement ratio. Abram's law stated that concrete made with a high water to cement ratio will have a low compressive strength and a low tensile strength.

It can be expressed as: 8. Lyce's law 90 states the relationship between water to cement content and the maximum aggregate size to achieve optimum workability. With the increase of the aggregate size, the required cement dosage decreases and the compressive strength tends to increase at increasing aggregate to cement ratio for a particular water to cement ratio. The linear relationship between aggregate to cement ratio and water to cement ratio by weight m can be expressed as: 9.

Molinari's law 91 developed as a relationship between aggregate to cement ratio m and cement content C were added to complete the monogram. Wu et al. The water to binder ratio was determined by: The volume fraction of water is expressed below: This method focuses on compressive strength in contrast to previous methods that are focused on fresh state properties requirement. In this method two mixture proportioning methods were used ACI ACI The water to cement or powder ratios were specified to obtain the required compressive strength of concrete.

Dinakar 7 suggested a SCC mix design method using an efficiency concept for different percentages of fly ash. A critical review by Dinakar 7 showed earlier that there was no method which can ensure the attainment of specific strengths. Dinakar et al. The water to cement ratio of SCC was determined using Equation Dinakar and Manu 54 suggested a SCC mix design method using an efficiency concept for different percentages of metakaolin as depicted in Figure 7. The strength of SCC at replacement percentages 7. Water to cement ratios ranging from 0.

The workability of SCC is dependent on the rheological characteristics of mortar, moreover, the workability also depends on the content and physical properties of gravel. Saak et al. The rheology of the cement paste affects segregation and the workability of fresh concrete depends also on the required aggregate particle size distribution and volume fraction. It was suggested that with the lowest paste yield stress and viscosity, the greatest fluidity could be achieved avoiding segregation.

By altering the rheology of the paste results, higher workability region were evaluated. Bui and Montgomery 24 and Bui et al.

## Structural Concrete - 1st Edition

The main emphasis of this method was on blocking and the minimum paste volume for SCC to attain segregation resistance, sufficient flow velocity and deformability and the optimum superplasticizer requirement. The minimum paste volume was attained with the optimum coarse to total aggregate ratio. The minimum average aggregate spacing D ss min and minimum paste volume V pd min were calculated for the liquid phase. The minimum average aggregate spacing D ss min depends on the water to binder ratio, the average aggregate diameter D av and the maximum size of coarse aggregates.

The formula was developed for calculating the minimum required paste volume V pd min depends on specific D ss min , D av and volume of voids V oid contents of aggregates. It was observed that criteria with regard to the liquid phase are useful for evaluating the paste volume, SCC having an optimum deformability, flow velocity and segregation resistance was achieved with a moderate dosage of superplasticizer.

The average spacing D ss between particle surfaces in concrete can be calculated with Equation 14 : The average particle diameter D av is calculated with Equation 15 : Bui et al. For developing SCC, the rheology of paste depends upon the aggregate volume with corresponding paste volume V pw , aggregate shape, particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates, fine to coarse aggregate ratio, characteristics of aggregate surfaces and difference of density between aggregate and paste as shown in Figure 8.

The average diameter of aggregate particles, void content and volume of aggregates affect the required space between aggregates which was called aggregate dimension. The procedure of mixture design is shown in Figure 9.

Nielsson et al.