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The War that Changed the English Language - Mini-Wars #3

Some of the heroes available in the game have land battle powers. Each land battle power has a mana cost, an attack power and an element. When selecting your heroes for land battles it's advised to use heroes that have one of each element of attack instead of using three heroes with the abilities of the same element. When fighting in land battle, the image of one of the three elements is displayed in the lower right corner.

How the Vikings ruled the waves - HistoryExtra

This indicates the weakness of the upcoming wave of enemies. Selecting the appropriate ability increases your chances of landing a devastating attack that wipes the wave out. This is particularly useful against the bosses. The active abilities are also a way to gain XP. If the ability used matches the weakness of the upcoming wave of enemies, all the heroes fighting in the land battle will receive that amount of XP.

Based on the land battle XP data collected on several journeys, it was possible to find out how the land battle XP formula works:. Also, apparently the game rounds 0,5 down. Sign In Don't have an account? The Franks and Anglo-Saxons may have relied predominately on land travel, but it was the rivers and seas that kept the Vikings connected with each other and offered the best opportunities for wealth and expansion.

Vikings in East Anglia: Conquest and Impact

As a result, ships played a vital role in Scandinavian society in the Viking Age. Graffiti of Viking ships have been found everywhere from Dublin to Istanbul, and ship designs adorn coins, jewellery and monumental carvings. Even children too young to go on long voyages would be familiar with ships and boats for short journeys, and toy or model ships have been found at Viking sites in Scandinavia and overseas.

The Vikings also celebrated great sailors such as Bjorn Ironside and his brother Hastein, who supposedly led a remarkable raid down the Mediterranean in the mid-ninth century. As time went on, the Vikings became increasingly specialised as shipbuilders, creating vessels that were well adapted for particular circumstances. Archaeologists have discovered a wide variety of ship forms, including purpose-built warships long and narrow and cargo-ships deep and broad , as well as others that could have combined the two functions.

This last group includes what probably remain the most famous — and certainly the most intact — ships excavated so far: the Oseberg ship buried and the Gokstad ship buried c , both of which hail from southern Norway. Both could carry a large number of men, but also boasted substantial storage space, which could be used for cargo, stores or loot.


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So were the Vikings raiders or traders? The discovery of the Oseberg and Gokstad ships suggests that they were both. This is nowhere more apparent than in the slave trade. Anglo-Saxon, Irish and Frankish sources reveal extensive raiding not just for loot, but for prisoners, who could then be either ransomed or sold as slaves. The same Vikings might well be pirates or peaceful traders as circumstances demanded. There are similarities here with Elizabethan sea captains such as Ralegh and Drake — romantic heroes to the English, heretic pirates to the Spanish.


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Among a people who prized the virtues of seamanship so highly — and who loved to flaunt their riches — they were also a major symbol of wealth and status. Even relatively small boats required a significant investment in labour. But the resources needed for building large ships were massive, including not just a combination of unskilled labour and large quantities of timber, but iron for rivets, wool or linen for sails, horse-hair, hide and flax or lime-bast for cordage.

Gold burned on the prows, silver also shone on ships of various shapes. For example, the Long Serpent, boasting 34 rowing benches, was built for King Olaf Tryggvasson of Norway just before AD , and was long remembered as the largest ship ever built. The Icelandic saga compiler Snorri Sturluson, writing around years later, noted that the stocks on which the ship had been built were still visible in his own time.

During the building of this ship, the prow-wright Thorberg Shave-stroke had been so disappointed with the design that one night he vandalised it, hacking wedges out of the planks. When King Olaf discovered the damage he threatened to kill the perpetrator. Shave-stroke owned up to the king, explaining that he felt the planking had been executed poorly and requesting the chance to fix it, on pain of death if his work did not please Olaf. Even more impressive than the Long Serpent was the longship known as Roskilde 6. At over 37 metres, this is the longest Viking ship yet discovered.

It was excavated in —97 along with eight later ships during the construction, as chance would have it, of an extension of the Viking Ship Museum at Roskilde. Anything over 30 pairs of oars was considered large in the Viking Age. With 39 or 40, Roskilde 6 was exceptional, and there is also evidence that the ship was decorated with ornamental carving.

Both the size and the ornamentation suggest a very high-status vessel, and possibly one built for a king, or at least for the royal fleet.

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Intriguingly, analysis of the timbers shows that the ship was constructed in southern Norway around AD Cnut the Great conquered England in , and ruled both England and Denmark until his death in In he also conquered Norway, driving his rival Olaf Haraldsson later St Olaf into exile, and creating a North Sea empire unparalleled before or since.

For the British Museum exhibition we have reassembled the surviving timbers of Roskilde 6, which is appearing in Britain for the first time.

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If ships were important in life for the Vikings, they also had a symbolic importance in death. Ships were used in a variety of funerary practices, although there is some debate among scholars as to whether they simply reflected the wealth of the deceased — ship burials typically feature other expensive grave goods — or whether they represented the voyage to the afterlife. The latter can perhaps be seen in the stones from Gotland in the Baltic. Designs vary but a widespread combination of motifs on the stones shows a ship below a mounted figure arriving at a hall, sometimes being greeted by a woman bearing a horn of mead or ale.

There were three separate funerary practices in which ships were directly associated with burial. The first is ship burial itself.


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Some of these were richly furnished, but others were on a less lavish scale, with smaller boat burials recorded around the Viking world, including examples from Scotland and the Isle of Man. These were the graves of chieftains rather than kings or queens, but still represent significant wealth.

Burial in actual ships was not always practicable. An alternative burial practice was to symbolise the ship by erecting stones in the shape of a ship around the grave, sometimes with larger stones representing the stem and stern. A final burial rite involving ships is understandably more difficult to substantiate archaeologically, but has captured the popular imagination more than any other. The idea of burning a ship with its owner in it is recorded in a late and mythological account of the funeral of the god Baldr, who was cremated in his ship Hringhorni along with his heartbroken wife, Nanna, and a dwarf who was accidentally kicked into the flames.